Steam Boilers and its performance

Reading Time: 6 minutes

According to ASME boiler is defined ” as a steam generating unit which is used for producing, furnishing and recovering heat, together with the apparatus for transferring heat, so made available to the fluid being heated and vaporized”. Boilers are mainly classified into two classes as follows:

  1. Smoke Tube Boilers/Fire Tube Boiler
  2. Water Tube Boilers
Steam Generator

Smoke Tube Boilers:

Boilers in which there is an external shell generally in whole or in part cylindrical, which contains a fire-box or one or more tubes large enough to hold grate, upon which the fuel is burned. From the fire-box or the furnace box, the products of combustion are led through the shell by one or more large tubes or by a considerable number of small tubes to a smoke-box or to some space outside the shell and discharged to the atmosphere through a chimney.

Fire Tube Boiler Schematic Diagram
Schematic Diagram of a Fire Tube Boiler.

In these types of boilers the water is circulated outside the tubes, and the gases inside the tube. Examples of this type are Cochren, Cornish, Lancashire, Locomotive and Marine boiler. These may be externally fired or internally fired. In externally fired boilers, fire is entirely external to the boilers which are used for stationary installations. In internally fired boilers, fire takes place internal to the boiler Shell. Locomotive and Marine boilers are of this type.

What is Fire Tube Boiler?
Vertical Fire-Tube Boiler: Developed from Haystack Boiler

Water Tube Boilers:

Boilers which contain a large number of comparatively small tubes through which water circulates, the fire and hot gases being outside these tubes.

Comparision of Water Tube and Fire Tube Boilers:

  1. Water Tube boiler is safer because most of the water at the hottest part of the furnace is in small tubes which if ruptured, only a comparatively small volume of water instantly released to flash in steam.
  2. For efficient and economic working, fire tube boilers require less of skill than water tube boilers.
  3. The floor area required for smoke box boiler is much less than water tube boiler.
  4. Chances of an explosion in water tube boilers are more than in the smoke box.
  5. The rate of steam production is higher in water tube boilers than gas tube boilers because of a large heating surface, long gas travel, and rapid and positive water circulation.
  6. Fire tube boilers can be made of small sizes and cannot be made up in large sizes due to the difficulty in transportation of the shell whereas water tube boilers are uneconomical in small sizes and hence often made in large sizes.
  7. Fire tube boilers are limited to a steam pressure of 16.0 kg/square cm to 10.0 kg/square cm, whereas water tube boilers can be operated up to 160 kg/square cm or more.
  8. The flexibility of operation is more in Fire tube boilers compared to Water tube boilers.
  9. The need of Feed Water Treatment is necessary for Water Tube boiler because of the risk of pitting and corrosion by impure water.
  10. Large water tube boilers can carry much greater overloads and respond more rapidly to sudden changes and fluctuations in demand.

Thermal Power Plant Terminologies:

Absolute Pressure: The actual pressure or absolute pressure of the system can be obtained by adding gauge pressure with atmospheric pressure Absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum or the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure.

Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure

Accessory: Piece of equipment not directly attached to the boiler but necessary for its operation.

Air Vent: Air cock or air vent is installed on the main streamline top or steam dump top portion for removing the inside air.  Startup vent is an also air cock which is used for the startup of the boiler and it protects the boiler superheater tubes get overheat.

Accumulation Test:  Test used to establish the relieving capacity of boiler safety valves.

Air Ejector: a Steam-driven device that removes air and other non-condensable gases from the condenser, thus maintaining a higher vacuum.

Ambient Temperature: Temperature of the surrounding air.

Air Heater: Supplies heated air for combustion. Located in the breaching between the boiler and chimney. By increasing the combustion air temperature  20 deg. C rise in air preheating by waste heat recovery you save 1% of fuel.

Alkalinity: It is determined by boiler water analysis. Boiler water with a PH over 7 is considered alkaline.

Ash Hopper: Large receptacle used to store ashes until they can be disposed of. Generally, ash hoppers are at that place where the ash generation is at large scale inside the boiler like in furnace hopper in travelling grate boiler, where the waste of combustion product escape through the boiler furnace and collected in the ash hopper after that it continued fall on the conveyor and conveyor take it to ash yard . Ash hopper is also used in boiler bank zone and as well as ESP ( electrostatic precipitator  ) bottom side for collecting ash.

Air Flow Switch: It Proves that primary air is supplied to the burner.  AIR TO FUEL RATIO is the amount of air and fuel supplied to the burner over a high and low fire.

ASME CODE: It is a Code written by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers that controls the construction, repairs, and operation of steam boilers and their related equipment. ASME develops voluntary standards that enhance public safety, health, and quality of life as well as facilitate innovation, trade, and competitiveness.

Atomize: To break up liquid into a fine mist.

Automatic Nonreturn Valve: Valve located on the steam line closest to the shell of the boiler that cuts the boiler in on the line and off-line automatically. This valve also protects the system in the event of a large steam leak on any boiler.

Auxiliaries: Equipment necessary for the operation of a boiler.

Baffles: Direct the path of the gases of combustion so that the maximum heat will be absorbed by the water before the gases of combustion enter the breeching and chimney.

Balanced Draft: When the intake damper is automatically controlled by the pressure in the furnace. Furnace pressure is maintained slightly below atmospheric pressure.

Caustic Embrittlement: Where there is excessive deposit inside the tube surface, water flow in contact with tubes reducing. Causing local under deposited boiling and concentration of boiler water chemical increase at that area. F the boiler water PH is high it results in corrosive attack and breakdown protective magnetite layer. this creates a localized loss at the inside wall of a tube. The collection of high alkaline material leads to breakdown of pipes.

Boiler Mountings:

Water level Indicator: Indicates level of water in the boiler.

Stop Valve: Controls steam supply as per requirements.

Pressure gauge: Shows pressure of the steam.

Safety Valve: It prevents excessive steam pressure in the boiler. It may be a spring-loaded type, dead weight type, lever type or high steam and low water type.

Blow Cock: It is used to remove mud, scale or sediments collected at the bottom of the boiler.

Feed Check Valve: Used to control a supply of water to the boiler, to maintain a constant level.

Fusible Plug: It is used to put off the fire in the furnace of the boiler when the level of waterfalls to very low value.

Boiler Accessories:

Economiser: It is used for heating feed water thus utilizing the heat in the exhaust flue gases.

Superheater: It is used to superheat wet steam at constant pressure by utilizing the heat of combustion products.

Feed pump: Sends water to the boiler at the desired pressure.

Injector: It is used for pumping water to a vertical or a locomotive boiler and low-pressure boilers.

Air Preheater: Heats the secondary air used for combustion and also primary air used to pulverize and carry the coal-air mixture by utilizing the heat in the exhaust flue gases.

Steam Trap: It is used to drain off water resulting from the partial condensation of steam from pipes.

Steam Separator: It is used for separating suspended water particles from steam.

Pressure reducing valve: It is used to maintain desired steam pressure.

ID Fan: It is used to exhaust flue gases from the boiler and discharge them into the chimney.

FD Fan: It is used to supply air for combustion.

PA Fan: It is used to supply air for pulverizing the fuel and carrying it to the furnace.

Electrostatic Precipitators: These remove ash from flue gases so that clean gases are discharged to the atmosphere.

Boiler Draught: It is defined as the small pressure difference (usually in mm of wcl ) which removes products of combustion from the boiler and allows fresh air to be sucked in. Draught may be natural draught produced by a chimney or artificial type produced by fans, steam jet etc. A chimney is made of masonry, steel or concrete. In big power plants draft is created by I.D. fans and the chimney is used mainly to discharge flue gases at high altitude so as to disperse the ash, etc over a wide area, thus causing minimum pollution.






The Vikings’ Wayfaring Ways

Reading Time: 4 minutes

Perhaps best known as fierce warriors, the Vikings were also the most far-ranging of peoples. In fact, the term Viking, in Old Norse, means “to go on an expedition”. From the late 700s until the eleventh century, Viking explorers journeyed from their native Norway, Denmark, and Sweden to many distant lands. They traveled as far west as Newfoundland in present-day Canada, and as far east as Baghdad.

Courtesy: BT TV; Vikings

Those from Norway sailed west to the British Isles, and Eventually across the Atlantic Ocean. During their first expedition; in 793, a force of Viking warriors sacked the famed abbey at Lindisfarne, in England’s northeast coast. In the 800s, a group of raiders went on to occupy the Shetland Islands, north of the British Isles and West of Norway, and the Orkney Islands off northern Scotland.

Vikings Invasion: To the North

By 870, the Vikings were settling in Iceland. In 980, an Icelandic assembly found a man named Eric “the Red” Ericson guilty of murder and sent him into exile. Eric the Red responded by sailing to a large island to the west, which he called “Greenland”. An Icelandic saga mentions that people would be attracted to go to Greenland if it had a favorable name. Around 998, Eric the Red’s son, Leif “the Lucky” Ericson, and a small Viking fleet sailed west to North America. They established the first European settlement in the New World, called “Vinland.”

Vikings from Denmark, meanwhile, ravaged large swaths of England and France. In 866, a Viking “Great Army” landed in England, occupying much of the country’s north and east. They forced the English King to acknowledge their control of much of England under the so-called Danelaw. To the west, they conquered the coastal portions of Ireland, and in 841 founded Dublin, today a major Irish City, but originally a Viking fort. The Vikings remained a major power in Ireland until the early eleventh century.

Vikings Invasion: To the South

To the south, the Vikings conquered France, moving swiftly up rivers in long boats, powered by oar and sail. From 845 to 886, they surged up the Seine to attack Paris three times. To stop the raids, French King Charles III the Simple in 911 offered the Viking chief Rollo territories in northwest France, called Normandy, after the Normans or “Northmen”. There they set up a powerful kingdom and, under William, Duke of Normandy defeated King Harold at the battle of Hastings in England. Farther south, in 844, the Vikings had raided Portugal and Spain, then largely controlled by Arab Moors. A fleet of 100 Viking ships seized Lisbon and boldly sailed up the Guadalquivir River to occupy Seville. However, the Moors dealt them a rare defeat. The Moors catapulted flaming projectiles onto the Viking vessels, forcing a retreat.

Still, other Vikings sailed much farther, to raid Morocco, then to the eastern Mediterranean and beyond. Many of these Vikings enlisted with the military forces of the Byzantine Empire, the Greek-speaking successors to the Roman Empire. Vikings made up the Byzantine Emperor’s elite Varangian Guard. In 902, hundreds of Varangians served as marines during a Byzantine naval assault on the Island of Crete. Varangians battled Arab forces in Syria in 955 and even fought in Jerusalem. So many men left Scandinavia for the Byzantine Empire that, to stem the outflow, Sweden passed a law denying inherited property to anyone serving under the Byzantine.

The Vikings of Sweden, meanwhile, were moving out of Scandinavia to the east and South. They journeyed through the Baltic Sea, then built inland trading posts in Germany and Poland. In time, they struck out across Central and Eastern Europe, down the Vistula River in Poland, and the Dnieper, Volga, and Don Rivers in Russia. Their vessel of choice was “Knar”, a cargo ship with a deep draft and wide hull. Viking merchants on horseback penetrated far into Asian heartland, trading with towns on the Caspian and Black seas.

The most significant settlements were in Russia and Ukraine. In 862, Vikings settled in the town of Novgorod, in Northern Russia. It became the capital of a country called Rus, after the Finnish name for the Swedes. Rus came from the word Rutosi, meaning “rowers”. Rus formed the foundation of Russia, as the Russian and Viking leaders of Rus intermarried, converted to Christianity, and steadily expanded their territory. And After lucrative trade relations were established with the Byzantines and with the Muslim lands, the Rus moved their capital toward the south to Kiev, later the capital of Ukraine.

Another important Viking market town was Bulgar, on the Volga River. There, merchants peddled honey, wax, amber and steel swords. The Vikings, most common commodity many have been skins: they dealt in the horse, beaver, rabbit, mink, ermine, and sable skins. They also traded hazelnuts, fish, cattle, and falcons. Another commodity was slaves, many of them Slavs from Eastern Europe. The merchants eagerly exchanged their goods for Arab silver coins. In Sweden, archeologists have excavated about 100000 such coins, minted in such distant cities as Cairo and Tashkent.

Like their Danish and Norwegian relatives, the Swedish Vikings traveled to the most exotic realms. They took part in the Silk Road trade with India and China. Archeological evidence shows that the Viking traders even traveled by camel caravan to Baghdad. Given the wide-ranging travel of the Vikings, it is fitting the Anglo-Saxon gave them the nickname “Faergenga” – “Far going”.




Docademic – A Medical Token Currency – 2018

Reading Time: 3 minutes

The DOCADEMIC PLATFORM is a single globally-sourced healthcare service platform for the public that begins with free Human Doctor-AI assisted Video Telemedicine service ( DOCADEMIC APP). It is already in use in 20 countries by thousands of users and an associated suite of AI-assisted tools and social network for the medical community ( Docademic for Doctors). Combined, these produce the highest level of free basic quality healthcare allowing any individual to access the benefits and knowledge of healthcare that technology now permits. The DOCADEMIC PLATFORM´s DOCADEMIC APP is built on top of DOCADEMIC´s existing, patient data routing and AI-assisted technologies soon to be blockchain enabled. With its simplicity of use, It becomes the ultimate resource for anyone who needs orientation in a health-related issue —a one-touch system that connects any patient with a Doctor through Video Telemedicine for free, from any country a user is located in.

(Courtesy: Loggiaonfire) Docademic MTC

All patient information will be secured on a blockchain and represents a perfect On-Ramp to healthcare services on a blockchain. In comparison, other healthcare related blockchain projects don’t have an effective On-Ramp to healthcare services. With Docademic’s free Telemedicine service we can get the masses to benefit from blockchain technology in Healthcare. The DOCADEMIC PLATFORM´s DOCADEMIC FOR DOCTORS social network offers Ongoing Medical education, Patient referrals, Tools for doctors everyday practice, and Real-Time Reporting of epidemiological data for our clients and researchers. Serving all client sizes and requirements: The DOCADEMIC Platform combines it’s DOCADEMIC APP and DOCADEMIC FOR DOCTORS social network to derive high-end services such as real-time geographic epidemiological data reporting, Automated AI-Driven treatment and diagnosis suggestions for Doctors in institutions or private practice, massive access to patient populations for preventative campaigns, and DOCADEMIC´s advanced proprietary Tools such as its AI-assisted Electronic Health Record and Digital Vademecum. A universal native Token: the MEDICAL TOKEN CURRENCY, MTC is the fuel that will power all services DOCADEMIC provides. Docademic is already in MTC 6 talks with Healthcare institutions, Governments and partners to make MTC the preferred Token for their own upcoming and existing medical services, as they migrate to decentralized platforms. We envision MTC will be used in the broader Healthcare industry and any other industries for various purposes including payment and remittance. The end goal: DOCADEMIC is building a solid, global Healthcare utility—an advanced platform the entire patient population and medical community will use to great advantage; where anyone can participate as users and Token holders. DOCADEMIC will become a complete healthcare ecosystem for the worldwide patient/Doctor population with digital access.



Amid the massive economic activity in the healthcare industry, participants face many challenges. DOCADEMIC have identified ONE fundamental element to address. It’s an element so crucial it often gets manipulated to the advantage of the elite, yet it’s vital to the health and growth of worldwide healthcare services. That element is: ACCESS. Healthcare Access is the lifeblood of the healthcare industry. Access covers short-term health solutions and basic needs of individuals— whether it’s associated with chronic disease or the common cold. A hospital can have the largest facilities in the world and the best-run medical service for patients, BUT, if at any point in time a patient needs immediate care and is unable to reach the hospital or pay for its services, then that patient is in trouble. The history of the healthcare world is littered with such casualties. Its future doesn’t need to be. Accessibility problems triggered many of the M T C 10 Global Health Crisis’ most traumatic events. A major recent shock occurred when the Ebola virus spread throughout West Africa, caused by a lack of knowledge and fear. The panicked reactions by residents transmuted to local governments, leading to the viruses further spread. The Digital healthcare world is pouring its creative energy into this explosion of new Blockchain and AI Technologies and exciting business models. But access—that less headline-grabbing yet fundamental element—is getting left behind. What if an individual´s most significant healthcare service is tied to a specific set of rules that prevents a patient from considering seeking medical help, or self-medicates, without quick access to a healthcare provider? They could be in serious trouble. This issue already exists today. The largest healthcare providers in traditional healthcare are global hospital chains, governments and other healthcare institutions such as Keyser Permanente, UnitedHealth Group, and Aetna. It is a cryptocurrency.

Nucleus Vision – An Indian Start Up in Cryptocurrency

Reading Time: 5 minutes

Nucleus Vision

One Platform that has the capability to revolutionize the brick and mortar retail industry is Nucleus Vision. The Platform uses blockchain, sensors and machine learning to take you to the next generation cashless shopping experience. Based on the real-time customer behavior and customer loyalty, the technology provides relevant offers to the users. For a retailer, it was difficult to understand consumer behavior, when he or she arrives at a store. The IOT Solution of Nucleus Vision Provides insights of customer behavior to the retailer so that the retailer can provide the kind of products in which customer’s Interest lies in. This technology is enhancing the retailer’s ability by customizing the behavioral pattern of the consumer. NV is a kind of Cryptocurrency.

A way ahead for Nucleus Vision

How to use the product nCash of Nucleus Vision?

  • Customer goes to a store.
  • The ION Sensor in the store will recognize customer’s Mobile ID.
  • The ION sensor will send customer’s Mobile ID to Nucleus Vision.
  • The customer receives either a push notification or text message to his mobile by offering him/her a customized nCash offering.
  • If the customer opts in, nCash is credited to his or her account (nCash can be moved to an ERC20 compliant wallet)
  • NV transfers the CIN(Customer Identification Number) to the retailer securely
  • The retailer will get new insights into the customers’ choices and preferences over Blockchain network.
  • In Case the customer is new then NV will ask its Partner retails to share information if available. Once the partner accepts it the data transfers in a secure blockchain Protocol.
  • A customer receives the request for sharing the data across retail partners network.
  • In Case customer authorizes the request, the customer will receive nCash as an incentive for each time the data gets shared. The frequency at which the authorization happen is held by the customer.
  • If the customer authorizes the data sharing, the blockchain enriches its neurological system to enhance the user experience the next time.
  • Based on customers data, a unique score will be generated NV’s Neuron Technology. The score represents customers purchase history and buying behavior etc.
  • The nCash tokens act as a universal loyalty programme across any retail network partner of Nucleus Vision.

How does the Nucleus Vision Technology Works?

Nucleus Vision workflow


Nucleus Vision Solution Architecture:

Working Principle of Nucleus Vision
Nucleus Vision: Solution Architecture

Nucleus Vision Advisory and Investors:

  • CS Rao is the Chairman & Founder of Quadgen Wireless, as well as the President of Reliance Communications. With over 35 years of experience in the telecom industry, he has positioned himself as a key industry thought leader in the Indian telecom sector and currently serves as President of the Association of Unified Telecom Service Providers of India (AUSPI), the industry body representing CDMA and dual technology players in India. He has also been the Managing Director of Tellabs India for a decade, as well as the President and CEO of Lucent India (formerly Alcatel-Lucent, and now Nokia Labs).
  • Sriram is the Managing Partner of IndusAge Partners and a founding team member of Intel Capital. Prior to this, he was the head of Intel’s Global Wireless initiative, responsible for the overall strategy and implementation of Intel’s leadership positioning in communication technologies such as WiFi and 4G. He is also recognized in the industry as the original architect of Intel’s efforts in WiFi and 4G/WiMAX technologies and has won numerous awards during this tenure at Intel.
  • Darshan Patel consecutively bagged awards for both Best Entrepreneur of the Year and Best Marketer of the Year in India for his exemplary work with consumer product innovation. Mr. Patel’s keen understanding of consumer behavior has helped him topple market leaders in a short time. He has incepted consumer products worth over $2 billion in market value to date and is the mastermind behind popular consumer brands like FOGG, Glam Up, Moov, Krack, Itchguard, DermiCool, Ring Guard, D’Cold, Livon, SetWet, and many more.
  • Raj Mishra is the Founder of Indea Capital and has been its Chief Investment Officer since 2003. Indea Capital is one of India’s earliest hedge funds. Raj is an astute investor with over 20 years of private equity & investment experience. Indea Capital invests in both private and public opportunities, and manages capital for large institutions, pension funds, and many of the world’s most prominent families.
  • IndusAge Partners, a Silicon Valley-based venture capital firm, is an enterprise development firm and venture fund that helps innovation-led technology firms scale globally. Among the key investment-sectors for IndusAge are telecommunications, AI, and IoT. IndusAge partners was one of our early backers during our institutional seed round of financing.
  • Currently a professor at Harvard Business School, José Alvarez has a delightful blend of industry and academia experience. Prior to his stint at Harvard, José served as Vice President of Grocery Merchandising Shaw’s Supermarkets. Most recently, he was the President & CEO of Stop & Shop/Giant-Landover. Mr. Alvarez’s time at the helm of large retail players, as well as his academic insight helps us better understand the retail ecosystem, which in turn results in products with superior design.
  • David Wachsman is the go-to guy when it comes to marketing tokes and blockchain companies. Wachsman PR has been a strategic marketing advisor to several prominent companies in the blockchain space such as Bitcoin Suisse, Dash, Lisk, Steemit, ICONOMI, ChainLink, Bancor, Kik, Aragon, SONM, TaaS,, and Decentraland. The client onboarding process of Wachsman PR is notoriously rigorous and only takes on projects with real-world impact. Getting an experienced PR advisor like David Wachsman on board is a strong validation for NUCLEUS VISION’s ICO strategy.
  • Ravi Sinha is an expert at handling emerging technologies. With over two decades of experience in the technology sector, he served in multiple organizations as Director and Chief Architect. Ravi has a rare combination of technical, business and people skills, and is a valuable asset to NUCLEUS VISION. Ravi’s experience in developing emerging technologies shows dividends in our sensor development program, as his advice and insight is always incisive and pragmatic.
  • Jaron Lukasiewicz has been a notable Bitcoin and blockchain industry figurehead since 2012. He is the CEO and Founder of Coinsetter, a New York City-based bitcoin exchange, which was acquired by Kraken FX in 2016. Jaron is also an advisor to SONM, Ambrosus, Hosho and Kraken Exchange. He will provide counsel to NUCLEUS on critical issues such as investor relations, business development, marketing, and regulatory compliance.
  • Arun Seth is a technology management professional with over three decades of experience. Mr. Seth currently serves as the Chairman at Alcatel-Lucent India Limited. Over the past 30 years, Mr. Seth has worked in senior commercial positions in HCL, Usha Martin and the UB Group. His vast experience in leadership positions gives us access to a powerful network of key decision makers and influencers across industries, greatly aiding us in the realm of business development.


Know more about Nucleus Vision from the below links








Best Mattress in India 2018

Reading Time: 7 minutes

The activity of sleeping is as essential to the mind as it is to the body. Sleeping at the right time and for the required number of hours is necessary for good health and a strong immunity. You might be doing everything right, however, if you still find yourself twisting, turning and frustrated due to lack of sleep. Yes, you guessed it right. It is the fault of your mattress. If the mattress is right, the required sleep comes easily and is nearly perfect. A good mattress can be hard to find. Although with some effort and patience, it is within your reach. You should properly research, count options and talk to experts about the right mattress for yourself. Here’s a primer on types of mattress you can find in the market. Give it a read and be equipped with the knowledge of the most suitable mattress type for you –

Ultimate Mattress
Best Mattress for a Healthy Sleep

Foam mattress – Some of the Best Indian Mattress is foam mattress. These are commonly found in every Indian and are quite comfortable to rest on. Depending on the type of foam within the mattress, the density differs. Foam mattress is no-nonsense mattress which is rarely soft and bouncy. To those with back pain and related issues, it is advised to choose the foam with sufficient care.

Coil mattress – These constitute one of the oldest mattresses known to mankind. Found in almost every home, coil mattress has springs within and layers topping the same. The end result is that the mattress proves to be not-too-soft, not-too-hard, making it an ideal sleeping base. They come cheaper than the rest of the mattresses.

Memory foam – Essentially, it is a type of foam mattress. The name derives from the fact that the mattress takes the shape of the person and maintains the same for the comfort of the person. Slightly steep in price as compared to other mattresses, memory foam mattresses and pillows are becoming an increasingly popular choice for urbane and modern homeowners.

Air mattress and water beds – Air mattresses are typically used as a quick fix solution. When you are traveling or camping, you prefer an inflatable air mattress. For people with certain back, neck and shoulder issues, air mattresses are recommended by doctors. Waterbeds are mattresses the base of which comprises of water. Since many might not take to the idea of sleeping atop a floating bed, there is waveless waterbed available in the market. It is known to provide a comforting and a natural calm.

It can be topped with foam or spring of your choice to make it more suitable for your purpose. Being a relatively new concept, water beds are pricey as compared to other mattresses.

Most mattresses provided they are of good quality and a reputed brand are extremely durable and last quite a long time. In fact, they may never wear out or tear. Although, for the sake of your back and shoulders, it is recommended that you update and check on the quality of the mattress every few years.

How much does a mattress affect quality sleep and relaxation?

It is necessary for us to get complete rest especially when we spend one-third of our life on it. Accordingly, the mattress on which we sleep needs to be firm, yet gentle. If it is too hard, then it gets uncomfortable and hinders the quality of sleep. Only when the body gets quality sleep; we feel rejuvenated and relaxed. A mattress, in order to be proportionate to our body and to offer 100 % of all its comfort and quality, it must be 20 cm longer than us and at least 160 cm wide if sleeping in two. If sleeping on a single mattress, the width must be at least 90 cm in order to allow natural movement during the night.

It is to be noted that the distribution of weight is different according to our body and from one person to another and the perception of support and comfort is different. It is, therefore, very important to consider the variables that influence our rest when we sleep with another person. When sleeping on the same mattress; the pressure created is of two different bodies, which needs to be considered. Foam mattresses with memory are extremely soft, giving comfort to the body and against bed sores. It is highly breathable.

What are the different mattress sizes available in India?

Twin Mattress Dimensions 39” X 75” – They are also called ‘single’ mattresses and can accommodate only one child or sleeper. These mattresses might not be able to accommodate a tall adult.

Twin XL Mattress Dimensions 39” X 80” – These mattresses are single beds too, but are 80 inches in length, which make them perfect to accommodate taller people. They are a great space saver for dorm rooms and guest bedrooms.

Full Mattress Dimensions 54” X 75” – A full mattress is better for people wanting to have a wider space while sleeping, as the dividing mattresses leave only 27 inches space for one person to sleep in.

Queen Mattress Dimensions 60” X 80”– A queen size mattress is an amazing catch for growing adults or couples that prefer sleeping closer to each other. These are generally the most popular kind of mattresses in India in 2018.

King Mattress Dimensions 76” X 80” – King size mattresses are the best choices for couples who like their own space while sleeping. These are also a great pick for families or pet owners who share their beds with their pets.

California King Mattress Dimensions 72” X 84” – California king mattresses are king mattresses from which 4 inches are taken from its length and added to its width. It is an ideal choice for people who need maximum sleeping space.


Which is the Right Mattress for you in India?

Side Sleepers: All of us have our own ways to sleep, some sleep on their back, some sleep on their stomach and some prefer to sleep on their side. The factors that need to be considered while looking for the right mattress for yourself if you’re a side sleeper, are firmness, support, pelvic rotation and the right pillows.

Among these, firmness is a factor common to all kinds of people no matter what their sleeping position is. The best mattresses must offer soft or medium firmness, but with a great support. A mattress needs to contour the shape of your body to make it the most comfortable while sleeping.

Another factor that comes into play is support and alignment. It is important for your mattress to be able to adjust according to your body shape and offer utmost support to your spine.

Back Pain: If someone is suffering from back pains too frequently, or has a back problem of any sort, the right sort of mattress becomes a necessity. If you are in constant pain due to uneven sleeping surfaces, or because of the firmness of your mattress, you should know that it needs replacement. For people with back pain, a mattress must be perfect for the following criteria:

A comforting mattress is your key to relieve all your backache problems. A mattress support is what keeps your body on a level plane. Mattresses keep getting deteriorated with use and their centre portion is the first one to lose its quality, which is the whole reason for back pain.

For couples: Any mattress you choose must provide you with certain basic features. The major characteristics are motion transfer and support. Reducing motion transfer is one major quality required by couples. These mattresses reduce motion transfer so that one person can move without disturbing the other.

Another characteristic that is most wanted by couples in their mattresses is an appropriate level of firmness. The right material in the mattress makes it not too hard or not too soft. It is an important requirement for couples. Mechanical support is again an important factor that needs to be taken care of while buying the best mattress for yourself.

Heavy people: There are only a few factors that need to be considered while looking for the best mattress for heavy people. Although the right kind of mattress for a heavy person could also be the right mattress for a relatively less weighted individual. It is these factors that help choose the right kind of mattress for yourself.

The thickness, firmness, durability the edge support and the temperature are the decisive factors. The thicker the mattress, the better it is for a heavy individual. The firmness of the mattress is another important factor to be considered while looking for the right kind of mattress for yourself.

For kids: It is important for kids to have the most comfortable sleep as a sound sleep offers a boost to immunity. Therefore you must choose the best mattress available for your kids. Some of the factors that must be looked at before investing in one are mattress size, comfort, durability, support, proper air circulation and resistance to microbes and dust mites.

Some things you must restrain from are toxic foam and fine retarded chemicals. Toxic foam means a mattress that is made of a toxic material, like polyurethane foam which is derived from petroleum. This material breaks down into smaller particles over time, that get released into the surroundings and add pollution to the environment. It might also cause coughing, headache, fatigue, dizziness, and even impaired function.

Stomach Sleepers: If you’re a stomach sleeper, you must look for a few more factors than just comfort, which might aid in a proper deep sleep. These features include proper support and ideal firmness. It is essential that your mattress contours your body structure, and there is no excessive pressure on your chest so that you are able to breathe properly while sleeping.

During pregnancy: If this is your first pregnancy, you might feel some trouble while sleeping because of a few reasons like increase in abdomen size, backache, shortness of breath, heartburn, and insomnia. All these problems indicate that you need to change your mattress and bring in the best possible mattress available for pregnant ladies.

Some sleeping positions that you must avoid while you’re pregnant are sleeping on your back and sleeping on your stomach.

Looking at all the features that must be present in the best kinds of mattresses and the types of mattresses that are available in India, we have made you a list of the best mattresses available in India in 2018. These are all available online and can be ordered while sitting at home, or your office with just a few clicks.

Here is a list of some of the top brands which provide quality Mattress

Best mattress
SleepWell Mattress


Orthopaedic Memory Foam Mattress
Wake-Fit Orthopaedic Memory Foam Mattress









MTR Foods-A Case Study

Reading Time: 10 minutes

MTR foods is a successful company due to continuous marketing activities by focusing on the customer’s requirements and creating products satisfying the customer’s wants and demands. In past MTR foods (erstwhile MTR Tiffins) was doing marketing activity in emergency situations by introducing new and different products as MTR masala powders. It shows that the legacy of the MTR company as Marketing Orientation by catering to the needs of customers and providing products matching with their needs. It is a truth and reality that any business entity doesn’t operate in isolation.

It will be driven by environment parameters Known as SLEPT factors. S-Social L-Legal, E-Economical, P-Political T-technological. MTR foods operated in the food industry environment with its USP as the quality of their products to attract and retain customers.

Marketing Strategy of MTR Foods

Any company or business unit is successful in strategy when it is able to map its internal resources with the external environment and create value for customers in the processing revenue to the company. Here MTR company has a legacy of “Marketing strategy thinking” in the food industry for seven and a half decades.

In this context MTR company’s ability to identify opportunity from the dynamic external environment (SLEPT) and providing a gamut of successful business reorientation by evolution from MTR Tiffin’s MTR foods by creating products like Ready-To-Make (RTM) Masala ingredients, Ready to cook (RTC) like upma, idli, dosa, etc. We can say that MTR is a marketing marvel because of its ability to understand the industry environment demand drivers that dominate food industry i.e. food habits and food consumption of consumer, and based on that, was able to create appropriate the marketing mix of elements -4Ps Product, Price, place, and promotion.


The Indian food industry growth is increasing every year. An opportunity for the immense potential for value addition, particularly within the food processing industry, the food sector has emerged as a high-growth and high-profit sector. The food industry, which is currently valued at the US $ 39.71 billion!, is expected to grow at a Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 11 % to the US $ 65.4 billion by 2018(Data Taken from IBEF). Food and grocery account for around 31 % of India’s consumption basket. Accounting for about 32 % of the country’s total food market, The Government of India has been instrumental in the growth and development of the food processing industry. The government through the Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) is making all efforts to encourage investments in the business.

It has approved proposals for joint ventures (JV), foreign collaborations, and industrial. The Indian food processing industry accounts for 32 % of the country’s total food market, one of the largest industries in India and is ranked fifth in terms of production, consumption, export, and expected growth. It contributes around 14 % of manufacturing Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 13 % of India’s exports and 6 % of the total industrial investment. Indian foodservice industry is expected to reach the US $ 78 billion by 2018 (International Monetary Fund). The Indian gourmet food market is currently valued at the US $ 1.3 billion and is growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 20 %. India’s organic food market is expected to increase by three times by 2020.

Food Industry & Trends The online food ordering business in India is in its nascent stage, but witnessing exponential growth. The organized food business in India is worth US $ 48 billion, of which food delivery is valued at the US $ 15 billion. With online food delivery players like FoodPanda, Zomato, TinyOwl, and Swiggy building scale through partnerships, the organised food business has a huge potential and a promising future. The online food delivery industry grew at 150 % year-on-year with an estimated Gross Merchandise Value (GMV) of US $ 300 million in 2016.

MTR foods Turnover?

According to the data provided by the Department of Industrial Policies and Promotion (DIPP), the food processing sector in India has received around the US $ 7.47 billion worth of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) during the period April 2000-December 2016. The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) estimates that the food processing sectors have the potential to attract as much as the US $ 33 billion of investment over the next 10 years and also to generate employment of nine million person-days. Mr Tomasz Lukaszuk, the Ambassador of the Republic of Poland, had also highlighted the keen interest shown by Polish companies looking for opportunities in India to expand collaboration and invest in food processing.

Government Initiatives Food sector. There are various government initiatives taken to support the Indian food industry in recent budgets so that an economic fillip given to this industry. The gamut of operations areas covered are from quality control, regulations to the promotional board of investment from FDI, and encouraging entrepreneurs in this industry. This government initiative gives a direction to industry to sustain in long-term with particulars quality standards.


The Mavalli Tiffin Rooms (commonly known as MTR) is the brand name of a food-related enterprise located in India. Having its origin in the city of Bangalore, it has a restaurant located on the Lal Bagh Road in Bangalore and 6 other branches in the city, as well as one each in Singapore, Dubai, and Muscat. MTR also claims to be the inventor of the popular South-Indian breakfast item, Rava Idli. MTR was founded as a restaurant by Yagnanarayana Maiya and his brothers in 1924. In the mid-1970s when India was under emergency, a Food Control Act was introduced which mandated that food was to be sold at very low prices. This move made it difficult for MTR to maintain high standards in its restaurant business and forced it to diversify into the instant food business, selling ready-to-eat snacks such as chutneys and rasams.

Since the 1970s, MTR has expanded and diversified, with MTR Department Stores opened next to the restaurant, and an outlet opened in Chennai. Currently, the MTR brand represents two separate entities; the MTR restaurant business and MTR Foods, the pre-packaged food business. MTR Restaurant is a vegetarian restaurant located in Bangalore, India. It was founded in 1924. It has also been featured on television in the global travel-related series, Globe Trekker. The food served at the MTR is a regular, wholesome Karnataka Brahmin fare and has its origins in the Udupi Brahmin cuisine of the coastal region of Karnataka. The decor is outdated, as more attention is paid to cleanliness and food quality than ambience. For many years, the customers entered the restaurant through the kitchen so that they would be able to satisfy themselves about the restaurant’s cleanliness before they ate there.

MTR Foods and Worldwar

During World War II, MTR found it difficult to make idlis since rice was in short supply. According to MTR, they experimented with semolina instead of rice and thus invented the very popular breakfast item of Rava Idli. MTR also holds a record of being the first fast food restaurant in the world to serve 21,000 customers in seven hours. MTR restaurant is currently headed by Hemamalini Maiya, Vikram Maiya, and Arvind Maiya (grandchildren of Yajnanarayana Maiya). One uniqueness of this restaurant is that silver tumblers are used to serve beverages. This restaurant was closed in the period of Indian emergency (the mid-1970s) when the Food Control Act made it non-profitable to serve food items until it was reopened in 1984. To save the jobs during the time it was closed, MTR started selling spices and roasted flour mixes. That was the beginning of its entry into the convenience and instant food business, and in a sense, a turning point. MTR Foods was headed by Sadanand Maiya (son of Yajnanarayana Maiya) until it was sold to Orkla, a Norwegian company for $ 80 Million in March 2007.

MTR ready to Eat Products

It produces packaged foods in different ranges— spices, instant mixes, ready-to-eat foods, vermicelli, ready-to-cook gravies, the range of frozen products, papads, pickles, chips, snacks, and ice creams. It bought the packaging technology from the Defence Food Research Laboratory in Mysore and there are no preservatives added to the food while packaging. MTR is also the first Indian processed foods company to be certified with the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) certification which is a rigorous standard of food safety and hygiene. It has also been sponsoring magic shows and theatre performances a means of giving live demonstrations of their products and to hand out free samples to the audience. MTR Foods is also the first company in the world to have created a frozen dosa, which can be heated and eaten right away. MTR Food products are exported to the countries in the Persian Gulf, the United States, and the United Kingdom. It is believed that MTR is the one who brought the first ice cream vending machine to India.

Ready to Eat MTR Foods


MTR foods a Product Dominant Company MTR Foods is a food product company offering a diversified range of packaged food products. It uses authentic recipes, high-quality oil, and best ingredients to retain and ensure homemade aroma, taste, and flavor. Products are prepared in the strict hygienic atmosphere so that packs retain crispiness and freshness. It includes items for breakfast, meals, and in-between meals like-Frozen Foods. The above company backdrop shows MTR as a company that continuously innovates and produces product with match of consumer needs wants and demands. Product efforts are Quality as strength to attract and retain customers. The framework of “Customer Vs Product” matching of this company can be understood as marketing marvel Company. To enable has Product Company MTR focused on “Product & Quality certifications” by different Food Quality Regulators FSSAI.

MTR food Products

This company has concentrated on single product line. Products based on different features, benefits, quality, variety items, and assortments. In this process of product assortment of the company, it is able to create value to the customer. This is done with a strong quality assurance system and certification. Product mix of the company is able to generate sufficient revenues for the business of the product. Product Profile Place in the Marketing Mix of MTR Foods Place in marketing mix means distribution or channel for selling the products. Here for MTR foods they used its own MTR tiffin centers to sell the products then started selling through other retail shops. MTR is spread it business in different parts of the worlds starting from Bengaluru as its headquarters in Karnataka. Its products are exported to several countries in world market like Singapore, Malaysia, Mauritius, Japan, Middle-East, New Zealand, Australia, Germany, United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. 

MTR foods franchise

TR has also opened its fast-food restaurants on franchisee concept called MTR Super Shops and these are located in most cities and towns of India. It has seven facilities to conduct manufacturing process. It has a strong and extensive distribution network that includes services of distributors and retailers. Its products are easily available to consumers through its own stores and in supermarkets, hypermarkets, discount stores, convenience stores, and grocery stores. MTR Foods has launched its e-commerce platform from Bangalore as a venture to move with changing times. Online selling is e-commerce platform for company and it comes under place in marketing mix elements.

Promotion in the Marketing Mix of MTR Foods Promotion is the tool in marketing to make customer aware inform and create a positive ATTITUDE towards company and products. The tools of promotion that includes advertising, personal-selling sales promotions and publicity are given in MTR Foods is pursuing an aggressive and intensive marketing strategy at regional, national and international levels. It has organized sampling activities at popular places and launched several ad campaigns via television, magazines, newspapers, and social media platforms to garner maximum coverage. It has collaborated with Jiggs Kalra, celebrity chef, to increase its brand visibility. MTR Foods in the year 2002 was awarded ISO 9002 certification as it successfully met the food hygiene and safety standards in the international arena. It was the first company in India to receive an award for Technology Absorption by Price in the Marketing Mix Of MTR Foods Price is the last one marketer discusses but its critical one when compared all other marketing mix elements. As all other elements are cost-inculcating factors but price is the revenue generators. Price with together product creates value for customer. MTR follows the differential pricing for each benefits, features it adds. (Refer Annexure II for various Price methods).

MTR Revenue

MTR Foods is estimated as rupees 700-crore company with a growth rate at 18 % CAGR. Its exports account for nearly 20 % and sales in Southern states to 60 % of its total revenues. MTR Foods has adopted a market penetration pricing policy and has implemented reasonable rates for its products. Pocket-friendly and affordable rates will help the company in reaching further markets. MTR Foods has launched its web portal as a much-needed initiative to garner larger profits as it will be able to cut down on its distribution costs. It has also implemented promotional policies and offers incentives like 20 % extra product with the original. The fifth P of marketing mix is packaging is dominant by this MTR company as its product-based firm and food-based industry.


Going forward, the adoption of food safety and quality assurance mechanisms such as Total Quality Management (TQM) including ISO 9000, ISO 22000, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) by the food processing industry offers several benefits. It would enable adherence to stringent quality and hygiene norms and thereby protect consumer health, prepare the industry to face global competition, enhance product acceptance by overseas buyers and keep the industry technologically abreast of international best practices. As Peter Drucker, The Father of Management says that The main aim of marketing is to make selling redundant. MTR is able to provide products matching overshooting the expectations needs wants and demands of customers as per framework and able to create the Customer delight and customer loyalty Through its philosophy of Quality as USP. We hope MTR sustains its marketing marvel even in the new regime of globalization in a digital world.

ANNEXURE– 1 –  Industry trends & Investments. US-based food company Cargill Inc aims to double its branded consumer business in India by 2020, by doubling its retail reach to about 800,000 outlets and increase market share to become the national leader in the sunflower oil category which will help the company be among the top three leading brands in India.

Mad Over Donuts (MoD), outlined plans of expanding its operations in India by opening nine new MOD stores by March 2017.

Danone SA plans to focus on nutrition business in India, its fastest growing market in South Asia, by launching 10 new products in 2017 and aiming to double its revenue in India by 2020.

Uber Technologies Inc plans to launch UberEATS, its food delivery service to India, with investments made across multiple cities and regions US $ 20 million.

Di Bella, the Australia-based coffee chain, plans to invest Rs 67 crore (the US $ 10 million) for setting up around 20 new outlets in Mumbai, besides entering Delhi and Bangalore by 2017.

KKR & Co LP, the US-based private equity firm, plans to invest about Rs 520 crore (the US $ 77.38 million) in dairy company Kwality Ltd, which will be used to strengthen its milk procurement infrastructure and increase processing capacity.

Henry Ford Health Systems (HFHS), a US-based health and wellness group, plans to enter India by signing a franchise partnership with Chandigarh-based hospitality and food services firm KWalls Hospitality, and set up “Culinary Wellness” branded stores across the country.

Mondelez International, the US-based confectionery, food, and beverage major, inaugurated its new manufacturing plant in Andhra Pradesh set up for Rs 1,265 crore (the US $190 million), with an annual production capacity of 250,000 tonnes.

PureCircle, a Malaysia-based natural sweetener producer, plans to invest around Rs 1,300 crore (the US $ 200 million) in India to set up a manufacturing plant and make the country its regional production and export hub in the next five years.

Swiggy, a food delivery start-up owned by Bundl Technologies Private Limited, has raised Rs 230.34 crore (the US $ 33.80 million) in a Series C funding round, with its existing investors SAIF Partners, Accel Partners, Norwest Venture Partners, and Apoletto Asia Ltd contributing 79 % of the new funds raised.

Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), popularly known as Amul, plans to invest Rs 5,000 crore (the US $ 733.6 million) to establish ten new processing plants as well as expand the current capacity to touch 32 million litres per day (MLPD) capacity by 2020.

Private Equity (PE) firm India Value Fund Advisors (IVFA) plans to invest around US $ 100– 150 million in the food business in India over the next two years. Zomato, a restaurant search and discovery platform, has raised US $ 60 million from Singapore government-owned investment company Temasek, along with existing investor Vy Capital, in order to explore new business verticals.

ITC Limited plans to invest Rs 800 crore (the US $ 117.4 million) to set up a world-class food processing facility in Medak, a district located in Telangana. The company has also formulated plans to enter the dairy market. * Source: https:// industry/ Indian-food-industry.aspx

Supercritical Boiler Features and its Economics in 2019

People at Thermal Power Plant
Reading Time: 7 minutes

Electricity is the most important aspect of our life. As of first January 2018, the installed capacity of power plants all over India is 330861 Megawatt. Thermal Power plays a significant role in Power generation in India. As Technology advanced, the design and construction of boilers also improved. The new technology is a supercritical boiler. Supercritical boiler enhances the performance of thermal power plants and economically it is viable too. In this blog, we will put some lights on the different aspects of a thermal power plant like its basic principle, the comparison between conventional and supercritical boilers, the economic aspect of supercritical boilers along with their advantages and disadvantages.

Working Principle of a Thermal Power Plant

Thermal power Plants work on the principle of Rankaine cycle. Rankaine cycle is visible in the below figure on the right section of the image.

Supercritical Boiler Circuit Diagram
Supercritical Boiler Circuit Diagram

In the Rankaine cycle, 2-3 line explains the conversion of water to steam in the boiler.

Line 3-4 explains the work done by steam in High-Pressure Turbine.

Line 4-5 show steam released from HP Turbine is reentered into the boiler for reheating.

Line 5-6 show the work by Low-Pressure Turbine used to rotate the armature of the Generator

Line 6-1 represents the cooling of steam in a condenser to Water

Line 1-2 represents pumping of water to the boiler

Super-critical Boiler Animation

Here we are attaching a Youtube Video Link to find the animation of a boiler. Here is a link to Arkansas Ultra Supercritical Coal Plant Technology.

Terminologies associated with Thermal Power Plant

PLF – A plant load factor is a measure of average capacity utilization.

MWH – Megawatt Hour

Kcal – Kilo Calorie

MT – Metric Tonne (1000 kilograms)

Efficiency – Maximum output divided by Maximum Input

Supercritical boiler – Boiler where the operating Pressure will be above 221 bars.

Details of Electricity production in a 660 MW Supercritical thermal power Plant and its Economics

Power Output = 660 MW

Total Energy Delivered at 660 MW for a period of one hour = 660 MWH

Considering Efficiency = 37.96%

Considering PLF = 90% PLF

Input Energy = 660 X 103 X 0.9 X 860 kcal / 0.3796 = 1345732.35 Kcal [1KWH = 860 Kcal]                                                           

Design calorific value of coal = 3300 Kcal/ kg

Coal requirement per hour = 1345732.35 / 3300   = 408 T

At efficiency 38.96 % coal requirement per hour = 397 T

Yearly saving of coal by increasing efficiency of 1 % = 11 x 24 x 365 days = 96,360 MT

Total value of the coal saved @ Rs 650 / MT = Rs 626 lakhs

If the efficiency increases by 2.5 % = Rs 626 x 2.5 = 1565 Lakhs

Considering the life time as 30 Years, the savings in Fuel cost will be Rs 470 Crores

For three units the fuel cost savings will be 1410 Crores

Opportunity Cost of Using Supercritical Boiler

Assuming Auxiliary Power consumption = 8 %

Estimated reduction in auxiliary power consumption = 0.3 %

For 660 MW units savings of auxiliary power = 8 % x 660 x 0.003 = 0.158 MW

Yearly savings in MW = 0.158 x 365 x 24 x 0.9 = 1248 .825 MWH = 1248825 units

Taking the unit cost as Rs 2.50 per unit

Savings  = 32.00 Lakhs

Total for three units   = 32 x 3 = 96.00 Lakhs = Approx.  1.0 Crore

For life time  = 30. Crores  [Life time of a thermal power plant is 30 year]

TOTAL = 1410 + 30 = 1440 CRORES

Assuming the life as 30 years, the approximate savings will be INR 48 crores per year for all three units together.

 Comparison Between Supercritical Thermal power plants and traditional power plants

I would like to add some more information on Supercritical Thermal Power plants on certain aspects like

  • Comparison between a 660 MW supercritical Boiler and a 500 MW boiler
  • Tonnage Comparison between the two
  • Material Comparison between the two
  • Structural Comparison
  • Cost Comparison

Advantages of Super Critical Boilers      

  • Improvements in plant efficiency.
  • The decrease in Coal Consumption
  • Reduction in Green House gases.
  • An overall reduction in Auxiliary Power consumption.
  • Reduction in the requirement of Ash dyke Land & Consumptive water.
  • Sliding pressure operation because of Once through a system.
  • Even distribution of heat due to spiral wall arrangement leading to less Boiler tube failure, thereby improving system continuity and availability of the station.
  • Low thermal stress in Turbine.
  • The startup time is less for the boiler.


  • A higher power consumption of BFP
  • Higher feed water quality required.
  • More complex supporting and framing in Boiler due to Spiral Wall tubes.
  • Slight higher capital cost.
  • Increased dependency For Spares and services.


  • The cost of operating the Plant of 3 x 660 MW, one percentage point below the design point, will incur additional fuel cost of 16 Crores in a year.
  • The indirect costs for Maintenance, APC, Ash Dyke land etc. will give additional burden of Rs. 1 Crore in a year.
  • The environment will benefit on account of reduction in Green House Gases like Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides & Sulfur Oxides.
  • The lifetime savings of 550- 600 Crores can be achieved by increasing efficiency by one percentage.
  • At Sipat, we gain an efficiency of 2.5 percentage by adopting supercritical technology in 1980 MW station, thus saving Rs. 1440 Crores in its lifetime.








 Condition Assessment of Super-critical Boilers – Challenges

  • Availability of coal both in quality and quantity
  • Reduction in emission-environmental obligation
  • Low Average efficiency of power plants in India in the range of 27% – 34%.
  • Achieving the required economic growth
  • Major Power Producer NTPC Ltd. has gone for first Supercritical Units in India followed by others.
  • Estimated 25 Nos. of SC projects are under the different phase of development while more than 35 projects are under proposal stage.

Requirements of materials for high-temperature application

  • Adequate strength to resist deformation-high temperature and pressure.
  • Adequate fatigue strength against vibratory stress.
  • Sufficient ductility to accommodate cumulative plastic strain and notch strength against stress concentrations.
  • Good resistance to service environment to withstand oxidation, corrosion and erosion.
  • Structural ability to resist damaging metallurgical changes at operating conditions.
  • Ease in fabrication (machining, forging, casting and welding)
  • Low coefficient of thermal expansion to resist thermal stresses
  • Good thermal conductivity to minimize thermal gradient
  • Low density to provide high strength-to-weight ratio – for last staging blading of the large steam turbine
  • Availability of long-term test data to validate the design
  • Availability in the desired size and shape

Comparison of allowable stresses between conventional and advanced materials

Various damage mechanisms in super-critical boilers

  • Short term damage mechanisms:

Erosion, Fireside corrosion, short-term overheating

  • Long-term damage mechanism:

Creep, Thermal Fatigue

Operational effects on super-critical boiler components

  • High-temperature effect (ageing)
  • High-temperature corrosion (ash attack)
  • High-velocity flue gas with the particulate burden (erosion)
  • Thermal cycling
  • Steam side oxide scale growth
  • Maintenance repair (weld, foreign material entrapment)

Problems Associated With super-critical boilers

  • Mechanical
  • Material loss
  • Wall Thinning
  • Weld defect
  • Crack
  • Swelling
  • Slagging, fouling
  • Loss of material strength
  • Metallurgical
  • Creep life
  • Structural integrity
  • Steam Starvation
  • Sudden Rupture

Various damage mechanisms and suitable NDE methods

Damage Mechanism NDE Methods for detection
ErosionVisual Examination (VE), Ultrasonic Thickness Survey
Blockade in water circuitFibroscopy
Welding defectsUltrasonic Test (UT), Magnetic Particle Test (MPT), Dye Penetrant Test (DPT), Radiographic Test (RT)
CreepIn-situ Metallography, Hardness Measurement
Oxide Scale growthUltrasonic Test (UT)
Thermal fatigue crack detection and sizingUltrasonic Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) inspection, potential drop technique
Short-Term overheatingIn-situ Metallography, Hardness Measurement
SwellingDimensional Measurement (OD)

What is Creep?

The time-dependent, thermally assisted deformation of components under load (stress) is known as creep.


  • Start-ups, load changes
  • Crack initiation – Stress Analysis, Nf
  • Crack propagation
  • Initial Crack length – Assessed by a suitable NDE technique (e.g. Ultrasonic)
  • Critical Crack length – Assessed based on the prevailing stress field and geometry of the job.

Crack propagation

Paris Law:-  da/dN = c¢Dkn            c¢, n = material
constants For k = MsÖ(pa)

               òaiac a-n/2da = c¢snMn/2dN;
M = parameter related flaw shape

 Microstructure featuresAction neededExpended life fraction
UndamagedFerrite & pearliteNone0.12
  None until next major scheduled maintenance outage0.46
BOriented cavitiesReplica test at specified interval preferably within 1.5 to 3 years0.50
 Limited service until repair and better to inspect within 6 months0.84 

 supercritical boiler pdf

Here is an Attachment of a PDF of Supercritical Boiler. It is a synopsis of the cycle, it’s background, potential applications and engineering challenges by Shane Hough.

Some FAQs

  • What is ultra-supercritical technology?

Ans –  Supercritical & Ultrasupercritical technology. Similar term(s): SC and USC power plants. Definition: Conventional coal-fired power plants, which make water boil to generate steam that activates a turbine, have an efficiency of about 32%.

  • What is a supercritical water?

Ans – Supercritical water oxidation or SCWO is a process that occurs in water at temperatures and pressures above a mixture’s thermodynamic critical point. Under these conditions, water becomes a fluid with unique properties that can be used to advantage in the destruction of hazardous wastes such as PCBs.

  • What are the critical temperature and pressure of steam?

Ans – When water and steam reach the level of absolute pressure 3206.2 psi (221.2 bar) and a corresponding saturation temperature 705.40 oF (374.15 oC), the vapour and liquid are indistinguishable. At the critical point, there is no change of state when pressure is increased or if heat is added.

  • What is the critical pressure of water?

Ans – At the triple point, all three phases can coexist. However, the liquid-vapour boundary terminates in an endpoint at some critical temperature Tc and critical pressure Pc. This is the critical point. In water, the critical point occurs at around 647 K (374 °C; 705 °F) and 22.064 MPa (3200 psi or 218 atm).

  • What is a supercritical Rankine Cycle?

Ans – Supercritical Rankine Cycle. , the operating pressure of the boiler is greater than the critical pressure of the working fluid. The heat exchanger in which the working fluid absorbs heat from the hot reservoir is not always called a boiler.

  • What is supercritical temperature?

Ans – A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. It can effuse through solids like a gas, and dissolve materials like a liquid.

  • What is a supercritical Carbon dioxide extractor?

Ans – Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO. 2) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure. Carbon dioxide usually behaves as a gas in air at standard temperature and pressure (STP), or as a solid called dry ice when frozen.

  • Is a supercritical fluid and plasma the same?

Ans – In simple words, a supercritical fluid is one which has the density of liquids and flow properties like a gas. On the other hand, plasma is ionized media or phase ( where electrons are separated because of high pressure and/or higher temperature to form positively charged atoms and free electrons).

  • What is the saturated steam?

Ans – Saturated (dry) steam results when water is heated to the boiling point (sensible heating) and then vaporized with additional heat (latent heating). If this steam is then further heated above the saturation point, it becomes superheated steam(sensible heating).

  • What is the triple point of water?

Ans – The temperature and pressure at which a substance can exist in equilibrium in the liquid, solid, and gaseous states. The triple point of pure water is at 0.01°C (273.16K, 32.01°F) and 4.58 mm (611.2Pa) of mercury and is used to calibrate thermometers.

  • What is the saturation temperature?

Ans – Saturation temperature means boiling point. The saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapour phase. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy.

Thermal Power Plant Models:

Thermal Power Plant Books

  1. Power Plant Engineering
  2. Power Plant Engineering by Black and Vatch
  3. Modelling of Gas Fired Furnaces and Boilers: And Other Industrial Heating Processes
  4. Power Plant Engineering

Cryptocurrency the new money

Reading Time: 2 minutes

The world of publishing, communication and data sharing changed with the penetrative performance of mobile phones and the internet. Money, has never seen a transformative innovation similar to this. Credit cards have been in existence for far longer than the internet and hence, were never designed for the internet. Huge amounts of money are transacted on a daily basis over the internet using a medium that is neither safe nor was designed for the purpose. In fact, money itself was never designed for any of the purpose that it serves today.

Cryptography was born out of the need for secure communication in the Second World War. It has evolved in the digital era with elements of mathematical theory and computer science to become a way to secure communications, information and money online. The first cryptocurrency was bitcoin, which was created in 2009 and is still the best known. There has been a proliferation of cryptocurrencies in the past decade and there are now more than 1,000 available on the internet. It is a currency associated with the internet that uses cryptography, the process of converting legible information into an almost uncrackable code, to track purchases and transfers.

International money transfers, international money lending, export-import and most other modern day transactions did not exist when money took it’s current form, and for this exact reason transactional efficiency, security, privacy, cost and speed have taken a massive beating.

With digital currencies, Bitcoin and the other alts, most of the above problems, if not all, are completely solved. Digital currencies open us to the world of smart contracts, instant money transfers without any middlemen, a global market that transcends the concept of borders and time, immutable record keeping and a wide range of other innovations. The vehicle to carry out these functions happen to be the tokens which are otherwise called ‘digital currencies’. The fact that these tokens perform set functions give them a value and as the acceptance and usage increases, the value of these tokens also increase.

The preceding 8 years, right from the invention of Bitcoin to this moment, has seen the birth of over 1000 currencies, Bitcoin has grown by astronomical figures and continues to do so, ‘billion dollar’ companies have been created and cryptocurrencies are now regulated and taxed in many countries, led by the USA. One can only imagine the kind of impact these instruments will have on the world in the coming years.

Ethereum is one of the best cryptocurrency

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What is Ethereum?

Ethereum utilises blockchain technology and cryptography similar to Bitcoin, but is unique in its inherent properties. Ethereum is an open-ended and decentralised platform for blockchain applications (like android or iOS for their respective apps). It was created with the intention of making it simpler to create and host these applications.

Concepts of Ethereum

Ether, is the token of value used for monetizing work in the Ethereum platform and it is traded just like Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

What is Blockchain?

Ethereum’s core protocol, the Blockchain, is open source and viewable by anyone with an internet connection. The Blockchain is a distributed ledger that records the origin of every Ether and every transfer made, right from the very first Ether. The Blockchain, by design cannot be edited or deleted and essentially lives forever.

The Ethereum blockchain has been examined and tested by thousands of security researchers and developers around the world. They have contributed towards enhanced security and functionality of Ethereum which has proven to be safe and reliable.

Bitcoin and Ethereum are separate blockchains their with unique properties.

What are the uses of Ethereum?

Ethereum is a platform that used mainly by developers to build “Smart Contracts” and “Distributed Applications” that can run without any downtime, fraud, control or interference from a third party.

Ether is used inside the Ethereum platform as a token to run these applications and monetize the work.

What is Ether and how is it different from Ethereum?

Ether is a token that has to be used within the Ethereum platform and is used broadly for the following purposes:-

  • 1. It is a form of payment that is different from Bitcoin, since it is made by the clients using the Ethereum platform to execute smart contracts and distributed applications developed within the platform.
  • 2. It is traded as a digital currency on exchanges, just like Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

What are Smart Contracts?

Smart Contracts are programs created by developers to execute specific tasks or services. These programs can make decisions, store data and interact with other smart contracts in tandem and are stored on the Blockchain instead of a server; thus, making them immutable (i.e. they cannot be edited or deleted).

Smart Contracts essentially live forever and can be executed at any given time unless programmed to self destruct at any point in the future. Although these contracts are created by developers, the execution and hence, the services offered are provided by the Ethereum platform.

What are Distributed Applications?

Ethereum allows development of applications known as Distributed Applications (DApps) which are software with components located on several computers across a network that communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages between each other to execute a common task.

How is Ethereum different from Bitcoin?

Although both Bitcoin and Ethereum are blockchains that utilize cryptography, the two differ in several ways

  • The primary purpose of the Ether, the Ethereum token, is not to establish itself as a payment alternative (unlike Bitcoin) but to facilitate and monetize the working of Ethereum platform to enable developers to build and run distributed applications.
  • The time taken to verify a transaction (block time) is in seconds for Ether transactions on the Ethereum blockchain whereas it can go to minutes for Bitcoin transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
  • The programming language used by Ethereum is called ‘Solidity’ which is Turing complete i.e. you can write programs (smart contracts) that can solve any reasonable computational problem; whereas, Bitcoin is not yet Turing-ready.

How do I keep my Ether safe?

Ethereum/ether wallets store the private keys that are required for you to access your Ether address. They come in different forms, designed for different types of devices. You can even use paper storage to avoid having them on a computer at all. Of course, it is very important to secure and backup your Ether wallet.

How is the Ether price determined?

Ether is a global currency that is traded for the Dollar, Euro, Yen, and other currencies in real-time, 24 hours a day. Like any commodity, stocks or property, the value of Ether is determined by buying and selling in the open market. The price fluctuation in Ether is real-time and based on the number of people who want to buy or sell it at any given moment. It follows the laws of economics where the value of a stock or property can go up or down based on supply and demand. Ether value can be volatile compared to traditional currencies such as the USD because it is still an emerging technology.

Why does the Ether price fluctuate?

Ether price is real-time and based on the number of people who want to buy or sell Ether at any given moment. It follows the laws of economics where the value of a stock or property can go up or down based on supply, demand and the news circulating it and hence, Ether price is constantly fluctuating. Ether value can be volatile compared to traditional currencies such as the USD because it is still an emerging technology. This makes Ether an attractive prospect for investors and speculators who are able to reap maximum profits in a highly volatile market.


Bitcoin is the smart cryptocurrency

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What is bitcoin?

Bitcoin is a digital currency used for secure and instant transfer of value to anywhere in the world. Bitcoin is neither issued nor controlled by any bank or government and is essentially an open network, hence it is called a decentralized currency. Bitcoin utilizes cryptography and blockchain technology techniques to ensure high security and verification of transfers; thus, eliminating the need for middlemen like clearing houses, banks and other regulatory bodies that exist to function primarily as an escrow. Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency. There are more than 1000 cryptocurrencies in the world.

Bitcoin Wallet
Bitcoin is the new currency


What is Blockchain?

Bitcoin’s core protocol, the Blockchain, is open source and viewable by anyone with an internet connection. The Blockchain is a distributed ledger that records the origin of every cryptocurrency and every transfer made, right from the very first bitcoin. The Blockchain, by design cannot be edited or deleted and essentially lives forever. Thus, bitcoin is also a distributed currency.

Block Chain Technology

The blockchain has been examined and tested by thousands of security researchers and developers around the world. They have contributed towards enhanced security and functionality of bitcoin which has proven to be safe and reliable.

How Blockchain Works?

Let’s Understand how blockchain works. For example “A” wants to send money to “B”. The transaction is represented online as a “block”. The block is broadcast to every party in the network for validation. Within a few minutes a majority of the parties in the network validate the transaction. The block is added to the chain, which provides a transparent record of all transactions. “B” receives money from “A”. The whole process takes only 15 minutes.

How do I keep my bitcoin safe?

Bitcoin wallets store the private keys that are required for you to access your bitcoin address and spend your funds. They come in different forms, designed for different types of devices. You can even use paper storage to avoid having them on a computer at all. Of course, it is very important to secure and backup your bitcoin wallet.

Why should I use bitcoin?

It lets you instantly send any amount of money to anyone, anywhere in the world without the need for a bank to verify these transactions and more importantly levying only a bare minimal fee for the transaction.
The advent of internet brought to us the freedom of information and a paradigm shift from post-offices and telegrams to e-mails and WhatsApp. Now, the advent of bitcoin and blockchain technology brings with it the freedom of value. It allows you to access your money without needing an ATM or Credit Card. It gives you the rightful control over your money. Now you can pay your friends back for dinner, buy your next computer, and donate to your charity, all using bitcoin.

How is the bitcoin price determined?

It is a global currency which is traded for the Dollar, Euro, Yen, and other currencies in real-time, 24 hours a day. Like any commodity, stocks or property, the value of bitcoin is determined by buying and selling in the open market. The price fluctuation in bitcoin is real-time and based on the number of people who want to buy or sell it at any given moment. It follows the laws of economics where the value of a stock or property can go up or down based on supply and demand. Bitcoin value can be volatile compared to traditional currencies such as the USD because it is still an emerging technology. Here is a graph of bitcoin price volatility.

Variation in bitcoin price
Bitcoin price in last 90days

Why does bitcoin price fluctuate?

Bitcoin price is real-time and based on the number of people who want to buy or sell bitcoin at any given moment. It follows the laws of economics where the value of a stock or property can go up or down based on supply, demand and the news circulating it and hence, bitcoin price is constantly fluctuating. Bitcoin value can be volatile compared to traditional currencies such as the USD because it is still an emerging technology. This makes bitcoin an attractive prospect for investors and speculators who are able to reap maximum profits in a highly volatile market.

Opportunities associated with Cryptocurrency.

  1. Reduction of cyber-Risks because of blockchain authentication.
  2. Blockchain connected cars, refrigerators, washing machine can automatically talk with the internet for warranty tracking, upgrade of software, licensing can be done.
  3. It is completely transparent, so you can track each currency from the system.
  4. Banks can make payments to the suppliers within minutes. They don’t have to wait for days.
  5. Tracking of criminals is possible because tracking becomes transparent.
  6. Cross border payments and regulatory compliance cost can be reduced to a huge amount by saving a lot of money.
  7. It can increase the speed and efficiency of transaction.

Practical Application of the Cryptocurrency:

All are thinking of transacting bitcoin for profit. I have written some usage of Bitcoin in near future. Recently one property related website has started transaction of properties using Bitcoin. Propy is the world’s first international real-estate marketplace. Propy facilitates connections between international entities to enable the seamless purchase of international real estate online for the first time. It aims to solve the problems facing international real estate transactions by creating a novel unified property store and asset transfer platform for the global real estate industry. Propy will make it possible to buy and sell properties in California for BTC by a simple nine-step process.

Bitcoin in realestate
The Era of Bitcoin